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The question to answer:
Will the use of adequate economics approach and framework help in converting wastes from being Liabilities into Assets with the help of available Technologies?
Types of wastes:
2-Municipal solid waste(MSW)
A- Types of wastes and their relatives(Products):
- Waste are consisting of solid waste I(sw) and wastewater(ww).
- Solid waste can be classified into three categories, namely: biowate, recyclable waste and hazardous material, and some gasses: Methane and carbon dioxide make up 90 to 98% of landfill gas. The remaining 2 to 10% includes nitrogen, oxygen, ammonia, sulfides, hydrogen and various othe gases.
- The methane content of raw (untreated) biogas may vary from 40%-60%, with CO2 masking up most of the remainder along with small amounts of water vapor and other gases.
- Treated wastewater will have 3 products; Water: ready for reuse according to the treatment level; Sludge; and biogas.
- Municipal Wastewater (MWW) is mainly comprised of water
- 999.9%) together with relatively small concentration of suspended and dissolved organic and inorganic solids.
- Thus Watewater Reuse represents Giants Potential for mitigating water scarcity that Countries in Mena region are facing.
B- The big question
Is Waste a liability or an Asset?
TAHE ANSWER IS:
It depend on how we treat the waste and whether we can Recycle and/or reuse Part of vit even all of it .
C- The problem of waste in Brief
1- No Actions vs Action in waste Management
We have one of three possible scenarios for waste management
a- No Action
- Open dumping forcwaste
- Environmental Degradation Costs ( direct and indirect costs)
- Health Problem Costs (Direct and indirect costs)
b- Action but No Use:
- Treat the waste but then dump it with NO USE.
- Financial Burden on Municipalities and Local and Central Government.
- Resource depletions
- Losses of economic opportunities.
D- Conventional Waste Treatment(MSW)
- Traditional solid waste management techniques, such as: Landfills and incineration usually increase the pressure on natural resources and raise concerns over human health, as well as increasing the financial burdens on local, regional and central governments
- Landfill(LF) which is the least costly approach of disposal, but only if suitable land type and size are available.
- LF suffers several drwbacks. These drawbacks include:
a- a continuous expansion of the required landfill areas that usually comes on the account of agricultural land base,
b- provide potential pollution sources of surface water as well as groundwater aquifers: and
c-reduce the property values of surrounding areas
E- Conventional Waste technique Treatments (MSW)
Resulting in :
- The evolve of negative externalitty due to the presence of the landfill
- Growing public concern over the potential hazards of land disposal
- Consequently the imposition of strict federal regulations governing the design and opration of landfills.
- These regulations have led to a continuous increase in the management costs of such disposal technique and thus increasing the financial burdens on local and central governments.
F- Conventional Waste Treatment (MSW)
- Incineration of solid wastes will reduce the volume of polluants bu does not solve the pollutionss problems .
- In addition to heat, incineration of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) releases several polluants into the atmosphere, including particulate matter and incomplete combustion products.
- The emitted toxic gases usually cause pollution problems to air and soil and have hazardous effects on human health.
- Further increase the health costs due costs due to the increase in the numbers od sick citizens.
The 10 commandments of efficient and Sustainable Waste Reuse System (SWRS):
1-Availibility of relatively sitable and continuous volume of wastewater supply and water reuse demand (economy of scole, especially ratios of effluent Volume to Copex).
2-The selection of adequate technologies of treatment that suits the socio economic condition of the area.
3-Positive environmental impact assesement (EIA)
4-Positive health impact assesment(HIA).
6-Financial viability of the selected technics and systems.
7-Proper and effective finance system(sustainable financing plans:availibilty and sustainbility)
8-The presence of social and public accepltability